Haptic Technology

1. 1 What is *Haptics*? Haptics refers to sensing and molding through impress. The order comes from the Greek ‘haptesthai’, significance ‘to impress’. The truth of the haptic interface dates end to the 1950s, when a conquer-slave classification was incomplete by Goertz (1952). Haptic interfaces were symmetrical out of the opportunity of tele- agency, which was then industrious in the distant molding of radioactive materials. The final appearance of the tele-agency classification was "transparency". That is, an user interacting after a while the conquer artifice in a conquer-slave couple should not be powerful to sepascold betwixt using the conquer guide and manipulating the express utensil itself. Early haptic interface classifications were consequently exposed purely for telerobotic impresss. {draw:frame} {draw:frame} Fig. 2. 1Basic edifice for a implied truth impress incorporating visual, hearers, and haptic feedback. • Pretence engine: • Visual, hearers, and haptic statement algorithms: Estimate the implied environment’s illustrative, gauge, and sinew solutions internal the user. Transducers: Convert visual, audio, and sinew signals from the estimater into a mould the operator can know. The civilized operator typically holds or wears the haptic interface artifice and knows audiovisual feedend from audio (computer speakers, headphones, and so on) and visual flaunts (a estimater defend or head-mounted flaunt, for effect). 2. 2 Classification edifice for *haptic* statement: {draw:rect} {draw:rect} {draw:rect} {draw:frame} {draw:frame} Fig 2. 2Haptic statement disconnected into ocean three blocks S- impresss* occurring betwixt an avatar at aspect X and appearances in the implied environment. Fd- *return* the unpatent clear interaction sinew betwixt avatar and implied appearances. Fr- Sinew to the user 1. Collision-competition algorithms expose crashs betwixt appearances and avatars in the implied environment and restore instruction environing where, when, and unreally to what degree crashs (penetrations, evennesss, impress area, and so on) keep occurred. 2. Force-solution algorithms estimate the interaction sinew betwixt avatars and implied appearances when a crash is exposeed. This sinew approximates as closely as practicable the impress sinews that would usually start during impress betwixt patent clear appearances. Hardware periodations anticipate haptic artifices from applying the fit sinew estimated by the sinew-solution algorithms to the user. 3. Moderate algorithms enjoin the haptic artifice in such a way that minimizes the fault betwixt unpatent clear and applicpowerful sinews. The discrete-season disstanding of the haptic- statement algorithms repeatedly bring-abouts this intricate. The sinew solution algorithms’ recur appraises are the express sinew and torque vectors that conquer be enjoined to the haptic artifice. Existing haptic statement techniques are generally established upon two ocean principles: "point-interaction" or "ray-based". In appearance interactions, a one appearance, usually the distal appearance of a verify, thimble or stylus industrious for straightforward interaction after a while the user, is industrious in the pretence of crashs. The appearance penetrates the implied appearances, and the profundity of evenness is fitted betwixt the general appearance and a appearance on the deportment of the appearance. Forces are then generated according to tangible patterns, such as germinate slang or a germinate-damper pattern. In ray-established statement, the user interface mechanism, for effect, a verify, is patterned in the implied environment as a bounded ray. Orientation is thus charmed into representation, and crashs are strong betwixt the fictitious verify and implied appearances. Crash exposeion algorithms recur the intersection appearance betwixt the ray and the deportment of the fictitious appearance. *2. 2. 1 Computing impress-solution sinews*: Humans know impress after a while patent clear appearances through sensors (mechanoreceptors) fixd in their bark, joints, tendons, and muscles. We bring-about a weak eminence betwixt the instruction these two ideas of sensors can attain. 1. Tactile instruction refers to the instruction attaind through sensors in the bark after a while feature intimation to the spatial classification of constraining, or past generally, tractions, counter the impress area. To impress pliable materials enjoy matter and paper, we reason the constraining diversity counter the fingertip. Tactile sensing is so the basis of tangled perceptual tasks enjoy medical palpation, where physicians fix hidden narrowless structures and evaluate construction properties using their operatives. 2. Kinesthetic instruction refers to the instruction attaind through the sensors in the joints. Interaction sinews are usually knowd through a union of these two. To produce a haptic pretence proof, classifications are planned to mitigate the impress sinews a user would know when impressing a patent clear appearance. There are two ideas of sinews: . Forces due to appearance surveying. 2. Forces due to appearance deportment properties, such as matter and attrition. The original idea of sinew-statement algorithms aspires to mitigate the sinew interaction a user would arrive-at when impressing a attritionless and matterless appearance. Force-statement algorithms are so grouped by the enumescold of Degrees-of-freedom (DOF) certain to delineate the interaction sinew entity restoreed. 2. 2. 3 Deportment property-dependent sinew-statement algorithms: All patent clear deportments inclose microscopic irregularities or evennesss. Higher atonement, notwithstanding, sacrifices despatch, a nice factor in patent clear-season impresss. Any rare of patterning technique must opine this tradeoff. Keeping this trade-off in impetus, researchers keep exposed past deferential haptic-statement algorithms for attrition. In estimater illustratives, matter mapping adds patent clearism to estimater-generated scenes by hanging a bitmap representation onto deportments entity restoreed. The similar can be produced haptically. 2. 3 Controlling sinews delivered through *haptic* interfaces: Once such sinews keep been estimated, they must be applied to the user. Limitations of haptic artifice technology, notwithstanding, keep sometimes made applying the sinew’s fit appraise as estimated by sinew-statement algorithms unusable. They are as follows: • Haptic interfaces can simply compel sinews after a while poor concretion and not resembling well-mannered-mannered in all straightforwardions • Haptic artifices aren’t unpatent clear sinew transducers. An unpatent clear haptic artifice would restore naught impedance when simulating move in playing measure, and any bounded impedance when simulating impress after a while an appearance featuring such impedance characteristics. The attrition, inertia, and endlash give in most haptic artifices anticipate them from contravention this unreal. • A third effect is that haptic-statement algorithms produce-an-effect in discrete season when-in-fact users produce-an-effect in faithful season. {draw:frame} ?Finally, haptic artifice aspect sensors keep bounded secureness. Consequently, attempting to determine where and when impress occurs frequently results in a quantization fault. It can invent retention problems. All of these effects can period a haptic impress’s patent clearism. High servo scolds (or low servo scold periods) are a key effect for stpowerful haptic interaction. There are two ocean ideas of haptic artifices: • Devices that tolerate users to impress and wield 3-dimentional implied appearances. • Devices that tolerate users to "feel" matters of 2-dementional appearances. 3. 1 LOGITECH WINGMAN FORCE FEEDBACK MOUSE {draw:frame} fig. 3. 1 logitech mouse Fig. 3. 1 shows a Logitech mouse which is established to a disingenuous that replaces the mouse mat and incloses the motors used to produce sinews end to the user. {draw:frame} Fig. 3. 2 Phantom Used in surgical pretences and distant agency of robotics in exposed environments {draw:frame} Fig3. 3 Cyber Glove Cyber Glove can reason the aspect and move of the fingers and wrist. {draw:g} The basic Cyber Glove classification includes one CyberGlove, its instrumentation individual, serial cpowerful to coalesce to your multitude estimater, and an executpowerful account of VirtualHand illustrative operative pattern flaunt and calibration software. The secure introduced haptic technology for the X-by-Wire classification and was showcased at the Alps Show 2005 in Tokyo. The classification consisted of a "cockpit" after a while steering, a gearshift lever and pedals that embed haptic technology, and a distant-moderate car. Visitors could moderate a distant moderate car by unconditional the steering, gearshift lever and pedals in the cockpit appearance the defend in front of the cockpit, which is incomplete via a camera equipped on the distant moderate car. After a while sundry new haptic artifices entity sold to industrial companies, haptics conquer shortly be a deal-out of a person’s usual estimater interaction. REFERENCES: http://www. sensable. com/products/datafiles/phantom_ghost/Salisbury_Haptics95. pdf http://www. wam. umd. edu/~prmartin/3degrees/HAPTIC%20TECHNOLOGY1. doc http://www. sensable. com http://www. logitech. com http://www. technologyreview. com