Third Generation (3g) Wireless White Paper

March 2000 Third Epoch (3G) Wireweak Colorweak Nursing Dissertation Trillium Digital Systems, Inc. March 2000 Trillium Digital Systems, Inc. 12100 Wilshire Blvd. , Escort 1800 Los Angeles, CA 90025-7118 Phone: +1 (310) 442-9222 Fax: +1 (310) 442-1162 Web: http://www. trillium. com (c) 1989 - 2000. Trillium Digital Systems, Inc. All hues awkwardness. Trillium and Trillium Digital Systems are registered trademarks of Trillium Digital Systems, Inc. Other referenced trademarks are trademarks (registered or inadequately) of the relative trademark owners. Printed in U. S.A Mention of to the emanations gifted herein by Trillium Digital Systems, Inc. is believed to be obsequious and true. Trillium assumes no burden for errors that may answer in this instrument, or for burden inadequately arising from the contact or use of any such mention or emanation or for any disturbance of patents or other psychical productionss hues owned by third keep-aparties which may effect from such contact or use. The emanations, their specifications and the mention answering in this instrument are material to diversify manifestly mention. March 2000 Tserviceable of Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.Introduction 3G Wireweak Commerce Drivers Real Sensitive Networks Next Epoch Sensitive Networks Evolvement to 3G Wireweak Technology Comparison of 2G and 3G Sensitive Networks Trillium's Wireweak Software Separation Environing Trillium March 2000 1. Induction Third Epoch (3G) sensitive contrivances and benefits succeed transmute wireweak notices into on-line, real-space connectivity. 3G wireweak technology succeed recognize an idiosyncratic to own contiguous avenue to precipitation-specific benefits that propose mention on insist-upon. The primary epoch of sensitive phones stoped of the analog jurisprudencels that emerged in the coming 1980s.The relieve epoch of digital sensitive phones answered environing ten years after concurrently after a period the primary digital sensitive networks. During the relieve epoch, the sensitive telecommunications perseverance practiced exponential augmentation twain in provisions of subscribers as well-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved as new expressions of value-manifest benefits. Sensitive phones are alertly seemly the preferred productionss of singular notice, creating the cosmos-people's largest consumer electronics perseverance. The alert and prolific deployment of new wireweak grounds and Internet benefits has emerged as a exact curb for notices equipment manufacturers.Netoperation components that strengthen wireweak grounds benefits are indispensserviceable to the next-epoch netoperation infrastructure. Wireweak grounds benefits are expected to see the resembling explosive augmentation in insist-upon that Internet benefits and wireweak opinion benefits own seen in fresh years. This colorweak Nursing Dissertation exhibits an balanceview of ordinary technology trends in the wireweak technology commerce, a unadorned balanceview of the evolving wireweak technologies and an scrutiny of how the notices perseverance plans to instrument 3G wireweak technology jurisprudencels to harangue the growing insist-upon for wireweak multimedia benefits.Finally, this Nursing Dissertation exhibits Trillium’s separations which strengthen wireweak notices and Internet infrastructure equipment manufacturers to clear 3G netoperation elements for alert and prolific deployment. March 2000 2. 3G Wireweak Commerce Drivers Telecommunications benefit affordrs and netoperation operators are enclosing the freshly adopted global third epoch (3G) wireweak jurisprudencels in aptop to harangue emerging user insist-upons and to afford new benefits. The concept of 3G wireweak technology resembles a remove from opinion-centric benefits to multimedia-oriented (voice, grounds, video, fax) benefits.In peaceoration, cumbrous insist-upon for alien avenue to singularized grounds is fueling clearment of contacts, such as the Wireweak Contact Protocol (WAP) and multimedia skill, to totality the 3G protocols. Complementary jurisprudencels, such as Bluetooth, succeed strengthen interoperforce among a sensitive marginal (phone, PDA etc. ) and other electronic contrivances, such as a laptop/desktop and peripherals, providing manifest quiet to the consumer and recognizeing for the synchronization and uploading of mention at all spaces.According to Lehman Brothers, approximately 50 percent of ordinary opinion benefits subscribers are expected to use wireweak grounds benefits by 2007, instead of 25 percent as earlierly prejudge . Lehman Brothers excite predicts that, after a periodin seven years, 18 percent of cellular fruitss and 21 percent of PCS (singular notices benefits) fruits succeed succeed from wireweak grounds benefits. Cellular subscriptions are prejudge to surpass one billion by 2003 , compared after a period the 306 favorite that was prejudge at the end of 1998, resembleing a mixture annual augmentation of 29 percent.Demand for opinion benefits has transmittedly been a commerce propelr. However, today, insist-upon for grounds benefits has emerged as an homogeneous expressive commerce propelr. After abundant years of stasis, the telecommunications perseverance is beneathgoing revolutionary diversifys due to the application of growthd insist-upon for grounds benefits on wireline and wireweak networks. Up until freshly, grounds commerce balance sensitive networks remained low at environing 2% due to the knotwidth limitations of the exhibit relieve-epoch (2G) wireweak networks.Today, new technologies are alertly emerging that succeed optimize the enravishment of grounds benefits and propose remarkserviceable knotwidth in a sensitive environment. As a subject in top, the growthd use of the Internet as an gratifying fount for mention distribution and peaceitution, in abstracted after a period the growthd insist-upon for global peacelessness has created a need for 3G wireweak notices protocols. The third epoch of sensitive notices succeed greatly imassay the instrumentation of obstructed wireweak contacts.Users succeed be employmentserviceable to husknot singular, precipitation-domiciled wireweak mention and interactive benefits. Also, abundant companies and corporations are peaceructuring their profession regularityes to be employmentserviceable to easily action the opportunities affordd by the emerging new wireweak grounds benefits. Abundant gradual wireweak benefits are already availserviceable today, and the induction of 3G wireweak technologies succeed add to their ubiquity. 2 1 1 2 Profession Wire, Feb 25, 2000 Sensitive Grounds Handbook, The Road to Sensitive Internet by Merrill Lynch, 24 September 1999 March 2000 . 3. 1 Real Sensitive Networks Primary Epoch Wireweak Technology The primary epoch of wireweak sensitive notices was domiciled on analog signalling. Analog methods, instrumented in North America, were unconcealed as Analog Sensitive Phone Systems (AMPS), period methods instrumented in Europe and the peace of the cosmos-fellow-creatures were typically identified as a deviation of Total Avenue Notice Systems (TACS). Analog methods were largely domiciled on circumference-switched technology and contrived for opinion, not grounds. 3. 2 Relieve Epoch Wireweak TechnologyThe relieve epoch (2G) of the wireweak sensitive netoperation was domiciled on low-knot digital grounds signalling. The most general 2G wireweak technology is unconcealed as Global Systems for Sensitive Communications (GSM). GSM methods, primary instrumented in 1991, are now munificent in environing 140 countries and territories environing the cosmos-people. An estimated 248 favorite users now produce-an-effect balance GSM methods. GSM technology is a league of Number Division Multiple Avenue (FDMA) and Space Division Multiple Avenue (TDMA). The primary GSM methods used a 25MHz number spectrum in the 900MHz knot.FDMA is used to keep-apart-among the availserviceable 25MHz of knotwidth into 124 consigner frequencies of 200kHz each. Each number is then keep-apart-amongd using a TDMA plot into prospect spaceslots. The use of disjoined spaceslots for transmission and acceptation simplifies the electronics in the sensitive units. Today, GSM methods produce-an-effect in the 900MHz and 1. 8 GHz knots throughout the cosmos-fellow-creatures after a period the qualification of the Americas where they produce-an-effect in the 1. 9 GHz knot. In peaceoration to GSM, a resembling technology, designated Singular Digital Communications (PDC), using TDMA-domiciled technology, emerged in Japan.Since then, sepablame other TDMA-domiciled methods own been deployed cosmos-peoplelarge and operation-for an estimated 89 favorite fellow-creatures cosmos-peoplewide. Period GSM technology was cleared in Europe, Jurisprudence Division Multiple Avenue (CDMA) technology was cleared in North America. CDMA uses unfurl spectrum technology to shiver up harangue into fine, digitized segments and encodes them to demonstblame each wheedle. CDMA methods own been instrumented cosmos-peoplelarge in environing 30 countries and operation-for an estimated 44 favorite subscribers. While GSM and other TDMA-domiciled methods own besucceed the dominant 2G wireweak technologies, CDMA technology is methodic as providing clearer opinion temper after a period weak improvement uproar, fewer dropped wheedles, improved guard, main reburden and main netoperation tonnage. The Relieve Epoch (2G) wireweak networks mentioned aggravatehead are besides for-the-most-keep-apart domiciled on circumference-switched technology. 2G wireweak networks are digital and dilate the dispose of contacts to further gradual opinion benefits, such as Designated Line Identification. G wireweak technology can manipulate some grounds capabilities such as fax and weak notice benefit at the grounds blame of up to 9. 6 kbps, but it is not suitserviceable for web browsing and multimedia contacts. March 2000 4. 4. 1 Next Epoch Sensitive Networks Relieve Epoch (2G+) Wireweak Networks As methodatic in a earlier minority, the implied exumation of Internet experience has had a terrible application on the insist-upon for gradual wireweak grounds notice benefits. However, the able grounds blame of 2G circumference-switched wireweak methods is proportionately gradual -- too gradual for today's Internet.As a effect, GSM, PDC and other TDMA-domiciled sensitive method affordrs and consigners own cleared 2G+ technology that is packet-domiciled and growths the grounds notice speeds to as lofty as 384kbps. These 2G+ methods are domiciled on the aftercited technologies: Lofty Speed Circuit-Switched Grounds (HSCSD), General Packet Radio Benefit (GPRS) and Enhanced Grounds Rates for Global Evolvement (EDGE) technologies. HSCSD is one march towards 3G largeknot sensitive grounds networks. This circumference-switched technology improves the grounds blames up to 57. 6kbps by introducing 14. 4 kbps grounds coding and by aggregating 4 radio machines spaceslots of 14. kbps. GPRS is an interposed march that is contrived to recognize the GSM cosmos-fellow-creatures to instrument a ample dispose of Internet benefits manifestly indetermination for the deployment of ample-scale 3G wireweak methods. GPRS technology is packet-domiciled and contrived to operation in equidistant after a period the 2G GSM, PDC and TDMA methods that are used for opinion notices and for tserviceable look-up to conquer GPRS user profiles in the Precipitation Register groundsbases. GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio machine spaceslots in the 200kHz-number knot allocated for a consigner number to strengthen grounds speeds of up to 115kbps.The grounds is packetized and enravishmented balance Public Land Sensitive Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that sensitive users can avenue benefits on the Internet, such as SMTP/POP-domiciled e-mail, ftp and HTTP-domiciled Web benefits. For further mention on GPRS, gladden see Trillium's General Packet Radio Benefit (GPRS) Colorweak Nursing Dissertation at http://www. trillium. com/whats-new/wp_gprs. html EDGE technology is a jurisprudencel that has been definitive to imassay the throughput per spaceslot for twain HSCSD and GPRS. The improvement of HSCSD is designated ECSD, when-in-fact the improvement of GPRS is designated EGPRS.In ECSD, the culmination grounds blame succeed not growth from 64 kbps due to the peacerictions in the A interface, but the grounds blame per spaceslot succeed triple. Similarly, in EGPRS, the grounds blame per spaceslot succeed triple and the peak throughput, including all prospect spaceslots in the radio interface, succeed surpass 384 kbps. March 2000 GPRS networks stop of an IP-domiciled Public Sensitive Land Netoperation (PLMN), Base State Services (BSS), Sensitive handsets (MS), and Sensitive Switching Centers (MSC) for circumference-switched netoperation avenue and groundsbases. The Serving GPRS Buttress Nodes (SGSN) and Gate GPRS Buttress Nodes (GGSN) find up the PLMN.Roaming is composed through multiple PLMNs. SGSN and GGSN intervisage after a period the Home Precipitation Register (HLR) to repair the sensitive user's profiles to dispose wheedle problem. GGSN affords the relation to manifest Packet Grounds Netoperation (PDN), e. g. an Internet backbone or an X. 25 network. The BSS stops of Base Transceiver Stations and Base State Controllers. The Base Transceiver State (BTS) receives and transmits balance the air interfaces (CDMA, TDMA), providing wireweak opinion and grounds connectivity to the sensitive handsets.Base State Controllers (BSC) passage the grounds wheedles to the packet-switched PLMN balance a Frame Relay (FR) be-mixed and the opinion wheedles to the Sensitive Switching Center (MSC). MSC switches the opinion wheedles to circumference-switched PLMN netoperation such as PSTN and ISDN. MSC composes the Visitor Precipitation Register (VLR) to ammunition the travelling subscriber mention. The inversion regularity happens at the purpose PLMN and the purpose BSS. On the grounds policy, the BSC passages the grounds wheedles to the SGSN, and then the grounds is switched to the manifest PDN through the GGSN or to another sensitive subscriber. Figure 1 shows a GPRS network. PSTN/ ISDN GMSC C MSC E VLR C GPRS Netoperation Internet Gi Gi SGSN Gs Ga Gr HLR, AuC/EIR D Gn SGSN Gn Ga 2G Netoperation GGSN CGF PSDN (X. 25) A Packet Switched Netoperation FR Gb BSC BSS BTS Abis BTS Um March 2000 Figure 2 shows the protocols used in BTS, BSC, SGSN, GGSN, and sensitive handsets: IWF MAP TCAP SNDCP BSSAP+ GMM/SM /SMS GTP TCP / UDP IP L2 PHY LLC BSSGP Netoperation Benefit Q. 922 (Core) PHY GPRS Netoperation Gn GTP TCP / UDP IP L2 PHY LAPB PHY X. 25 TCP / UDP IP L2 SCCP MTP3 MTP2 MTP1 Gn SGSN Ga Ga GGSN CGF Packet Switched Netoperation FR GTP TCP / UDP IP L2 PHY IP / X. 25 GTP TCP / UDP IP L2 PHYGMM/SM MAP TCAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 MTP1 LLC Relay BSSGP Netoperation Benefit Q. 922 (Core) PHY BSC Gb Contact BSS LLC Relay RLC MAC GSM RF Abis BTS BTS Um IP / X. 25 GMM/ SM/SMS SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF March 2000 The aftercited is a slight term of each protocol flake in the GPRS netoperation infrastructure: § Sub-Netoperation Dependent Throng Protocol (SNDCP): protocol that maps a networkroll protocol, such as IP or X. 25, to the beneathlying argumentative be-mixed curb. SNDCP besides affords other functions such as compression, segmentation and multiplexing of network-flake notices to a uncombined implied relation. Argumentative Be-mixed Curb (LLC): a grounds be-mixed flake protocol for GPRS which functions resembling to Be-mixed Avenue Protocol – D (LAPD). This flake assures the true sell of user grounds opposing a wireweak network. § Base State Method GPRS Protocol (BSSGP): regularityes routing and temper of benefit (QoS) mention for the BSS. BSSGP uses the Frame Relay Q. 922 kernel protocol as its enravishment contrivance. § GPRS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol grounds units through the IP backbone by adding routing mention. GTP produce-an-effects on top of TCP/UDP balance IP. GPRS Restlessness Skill (GMM/SM): protocol that produce-an-effects in the signalling flatten of GPRS, manipulates peacelessness issues such as travelling, evidence, gathering of encryption algorithms and maintains PDP texture. § Netoperation Service: protocol that manages the throng sub-flake that produce-an-effects among BSSGP and the Frame Relay Q. 922 Kernel by mapping BSSGP's benefit asks to the embezzle Frame Relay benefits. § BSSAP+: protocol that strengthens paging for opinion relations from MSC via SGSN, thus optimizing paging for sensitive subscribers. BSSAP+ is besides lawful for precipitation and routing updates as well-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved as sensitive state alerting. • SCCP, MTP3, MTP2 are protocols used to buttress Sensitive Contact Keep-apart (MAP) and BSSAP+ in circumference switched PLMNs. § Sensitive Contact Keep-apart (MAP): buttresss signaling among SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR. March 2000 4. 2 Third Epoch (3G) Wireweak Networks 3G wireweak technology resembles the throng of sundry 2G wireweak telecommunications methods into a uncombined global method that includes twain terrene and associate components.One of the most weighty aspects of 3G wireweak technology is its force to unify real cellular jurisprudencels, such as CDMA, GSM, and TDMA, beneath one umbrella. The aftercited three air intervisage jurisprudences conclude this effect: largeknot CDMA, CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireweak Notice (UWC-136) interfaces. Wideknot CDMA (W-CDMA) is congenial after a period the ordinary 2G GSM networks ordinary in Europe and force of Asia. W-CDMA succeed insist-upon knotwidth of among 5Mhz and 10 Mhz, making it a suitserviceable platform for remarkserviceable tonnage contacts. It can be balancelaid onto real GSM, TDMA (IS-36) and IS95 networks.Subscribers are likely to avenue 3G wireweak benefits initially via dual knot marginal contrivances. W-CDMA networks succeed be used for lofty-tonnage contacts and 2G digital wireweak methods succeed be used for opinion wheedles. The relieve radio intervisage is CDMA2000 which is awkward congenial after a period the relieve epoch CDMA IS-95 jurisprudencel predominantly used in US. The third radio interface, Universal Wireweak Communications – UWC-136, besides designated IS-136HS, was contemplated by the TIA and contrived to remit after a period ANSI-136, the North American TDMA jurisprudencel. 3G wireweak networks stop of a Radio Avenue Netoperation (RAN) and a kernel network.The kernel netoperation stops of a packet-switched territory, which includes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs, which afford the resembling functionality that they afford in a GPRS method, and a circumference-switched territory, which includes 3G MSC for switching of opinion wheedles. Charging for benefits and avenue is performed through the Charging Gate Function (CGF), which is besides keep-akeep-apart of the kernel network. RAN functionality is stubborn from the kernel netoperation functionality. The avenue netoperation affords a kernel netoperation technology stubborn avenue for sensitive marginals to unanalogous expressions of kernel networks and netoperation benefits.Either kernel netoperation territory can avenue any embezzle RAN benefit; e. g. it should be practicable to avenue a “speech” radio avenue bearer from the packetswitched territory. March 2000 The Radio Avenue Netoperation stops of new netoperation elements, unconcealed as Node B and Radio Netoperation Controllers (RNCs). Node B is comparserviceable to the Base Transceiver State in 2G wireweak networks. RNC replaces the Base State Controller. It affords the radio refount skill, handbalance curb and buttress for the relations to circumference-switched and packet-switched territorys.The interrelation of the netoperation elements in RAN and among RAN and kernel netoperation is balance Iub, Iur and Iu interfaces domiciled on ATM as a flake 2 switching technology. Grounds benefits run from the marginal contrivance balance IP, which in decline uses ATM as a true enravishment after a period QoS. Opinion is embedded into ATM from the plane of the netoperation (Node B) and is enravishmented balance ATM out of the RNC. The Iu intervisage is rend into 2 force: circumferenceswitched and packet-switched. The Iu intervisage is domiciled on ATM after a period opinion commerce embedded on implied circumferences using AAL2 technology and IP-over-ATM for grounds commerce using AAL5 technology.These commerce expressions are switched stubbornly to either 3G SGSN for grounds or 3G MSC for opinion. Figure 3 shows the 3G wireweak netoperation structure. PSTN/ ISDN 3G MSC VLR HLR, AuC/EIR Kernel Netoperation D Gs Gr Gc Gn Gi Internet 3G SGSN Ga Ga Gi GGSN CGF PSDN (X. 25) Circumference Switched Netoperation Packet Switched Netoperation Iu RNC Iu ATM IP Iur RNC RNS Node B Node B RNS Node B Iub Node B Uu Uu March 2000 Figure 4 shows protocols used in Node B, RNC and sensitive handsets. Q. 2630. 1 RANAP / RNSAP SCCP M3UA Circumference Switched Netoperation ATM Iu RNC Packet Switched Netoperation IP Iu RNC GTP NBAP Q. 2150. 2 Q. 2150. 1 MTP3B Q. 2130 Q. 2140 PDCP RRC RLC MAC AAL2 AAL2 CPSUDP IP CIP SSCOP AAL5 SAR AAL5 CPS UDP SCTP I ur I ub RNS Node B Node B Node B IP ATM RNS Node B Q. 2630. 1 NBAP Q. 2150. 2 IP, PPP, OSP PDCP RLC GMM/ SM RRC RLC MAC L1 AAL2 SSSAR AAL2 CPS ATM Q. 2130 SSCOP AAL5 SAR AAL5 CPS MAC L1 March 2000 The aftercited is a slight term of each protocol flake in a 3G wireweak netoperation infrastructure: § Global Restlessness Skill (GMM): protocol that includes win, dissolve, guard, and routing area update functionality. § Node B Contact Keep-apart (NBAP): affords procedures for paging distribution, dispersed method mention and skill of ardent and argumentative productionss. Packet Grounds Throng Protocol (PDCP): maps remarkserviceable roll characteristics onto the characteristics of the beneathlying radio-intervisage protocols. PDCP besides affords protocol genuineness for remarkserviceable flake protocols. § § Radio Be-mixed Curb (RLC): affords a argumentative be-mixed curb balance the radio interface. Medium Avenue Curb (MAC): curbs the avenue signaling (ask and yield) procedures for the radio machine. § Radio refount Curb (RRC): manages the alprecipitation and subsistence of radio notice paths. § Radio Avenue Netoperation Contact Protocol (RANAP): encapsulates remarkserviceable flake signaling. Manages the signaling and GTP relations among RNC and 3G-SGSN, and signaling and circumference-switched relations among RNC and 3G MSC. § Radio Netoperation Benefit Contact Keep-apart (RNSAP): affords the notice among RNCs. § GPRS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol grounds units through the IP backbone by adding routing mention. GTP produce-an-effects on top of TCP/UDP balance IP. § Sensitive Contact Keep-apart (MAP): buttresss signaling among SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR. § AAL2 Signaling (Q. 2630. 1, Q. 2150. 1, Q. 2150. , AAL2 SSSAR, and AAL2 CPS): protocols escort used to sell opinion balance ATM backbone using ATM communication flake 2. § Sigtran (SCTP, M3UA): protocols escort used to sell SCN signaling protocols balance IP network. March 2000 5. Evolvement to 3G Wireweak Technology Initial coverage Initially, 3G wireweak technology succeed be deployed as "islands" in profession areas where further tonnage and gradual benefits are insist-uponed. A full eliminatement to 3G wireweak technology is behestd by the end of 2000 in Japan (for-the-most-keep-apart due to tonnage insist-uponments) and by the end of 2001 in Europe.NTT DoCoMo is deploying 3G wireweak benefits in Japan in the third forbearance of 2000. In opposition, there is no resembling behest in North America and it is further likely that race succeed propel the deployment of 3G wireweak technology in that district. For illustration, Nextel Communications has announced that it succeed be deploying 3G wireweak benefits in North America during the fourth forbearance of 2000. The instrumentation of 3G wireweak methods raises sepablame exact issues, such as the auspicious awkward compatibility to air interfaces as well-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved as to deployed infrastructures. Interstarted after a period 2G and 2G+ Wireweak NetworksThe entity of impart networks in most districts of the cosmos-fellow-creatures loftylights the investigate that notices equipment manufacturers visage when instrumenting next-epoch wireweak technology. Compatibility and interstarted among the new 3G wireweak methods and the old impart networks must be achieved in aptop to secure the rejoinder of new 3G wireweak technology by benefit affordrs and end-users. The real kernel technology used in sensitive networks is domiciled on transmitted circumference-switched technology for bestowal of opinion benefits. However, this transmitted technology is inprolific for the bestowal of multimedia benefits.The kernel switches for next-epoch of sensitive networks succeed be domiciled on packet-switched technology which is rectify escortd for grounds and multimedia benefits. Relieve epoch GSM networks stop of BTS, BSC, MSC/VLR and HLR/AuC/EIR netoperation elements. The interfaces among BTS, BSC and MSC/VLR elements are circumference-switched PCM. GPRS technology adds a equidistant packet-switched kernel network. The 2G+ netoperation stops of BSC after a period packet interfaces to SGSN, GGSN, HLR/AuC/EIR. The interfaces among BSC and SGSN netoperation elements are either Frame Relay and/or ATM so as to afford true enravishment after a period Temper of Benefit (QoS).March 2000 3G wireweak technology introduces new Radio Avenue Netoperation (RAN) stoping of Node B and RNC netoperation elements. The 3G Kernel Netoperation stops of the resembling entities as GSM and GPRS: 3G MSC/VLR, GMSC, HLR/AuC/EIR, 3G-SGSN, and GGSN. IP technology is used end-to-end for multimedia contacts and ATM technology is used to afford true enravishment after a period QoS. 3G wireweak separations recognize for the possibility of having an integrated netoperation for circumference-switched and packet-switched benefits by utilizing ATM technology. The BSC may eliminate into an RNC by using add-on cards or peaceorational hardware that is co-located. The consigner number (5Mhz) and the knots (2. 5 to 5Ghz) are unanalogous for 3G wireweak technology compared to 2G/2G+ wireweak technology. Evolvement of BSC to RNC insist-upons buttress for new protocols such as PDCP, RRC, RANAP, RNSAP and NBAP. Therefore, BTS' eliminatement into Node B may assay to be trying and may reexhibit expressive principal disbursement on the keep-akeep-apart of netoperation operators. MSC eliminatement depends on the gathering of a agricultural netoperation to push the asked benefits. If an ATM netoperation is separated, then ATM protocols succeed own to be buttressed in 3G MSC concurrently after a period interstarted among ATM and real PSTN/ISDN networks.The eliminatement of SGSN and GGSN to 3G nodes is proportionately easier. Enhancements to GTP protocol and buttress for new RANAP protocol are indispensable to buttress 3G wireweak methods. ATM protocols need to be incorporated to enravishment the benefits. The HLR groundsbases eliminate into 3G-HLR by adding 3G wireweak user profiles. The VLR groundsbase must besides be updated conformably. The EIR groundsbase needs to diversify to compose new equipment that succeed be deployed for 3G wireweak methods. Finally, global travelling insist-upons compatibility to real deployment and captivating fallback to an availserviceable roll when asked benefits are not availserviceable in the district.Towards this end, the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG) is operationing air-tight after a period 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2) to succeed up after a period global jurisprudencels for 3G wireweak protocols. March 2000 6. Comparison of 2G and 3G Sensitive Networks As mentioned aggravatehead, although there are abundant resemblingities among 2G and 3G wireweak networks (and abundant of the 2G and 3G components are shared or conjoined through interstarted functions), there are besides abundant differences among the two technologies. Tserviceable 1 compares the differences among the kernel network, the radio division and other areas of the two networks.Tserviceable 1: Comparison among 2G+ and 3G wireweak networks Feature Kernel Netoperation 2G MSC/VLR, GMSC, HLR/AuC/EIR 2G+ MSC/VLR, GMSC, SGSN, GGSN, HLR/AuC/EIR, CGF 3G 3G MSC/VLR (after a period manifest interstarted and transcoding), GMSC, HLR/AuC/EIR, 3G-SGSN, GGSN, CGF GMM/SM,MM,CM,BSSAP, RANAP,GTP,SCCP, MTP3B, M3UA, SCTP, Q. 2630. 1 (NNI), TCAP, MAP, ISUP, MTP 3, MTP 2, MTP 1, Q. 2140, SSCOP ATM, IP enravishment Node B, RNC, MS W-CDMA, CDMA2000, IWC-136 GMM/SM, MAC, RLC, PDCP,RRC,Q. 2630. 1(UNI+ NNI),NBAP, RNSAP, RANAP, SCCP, MTP3B, M3UA, SCTP, GTP-U, Q. 2140, Q. 130, SSCOP, CIP New expression of marginal Multiple jurisprudences Voice, grounds and video marginals WAP, multimedia mgmt Enhanced HLR, VLR, EIR,AuC Up to 2Mbps MM, CM, BSSAP, SCCP, ISUP,TCAP, MAP, MTP 3, MTP 2, MTP 1 GMM/SM/SMS, MM, CM, GTP, SNDCP,NS, FR, LLC, BSSGP, BSSAP, BSSAP+, SCCP, TCAP, MAP, ISUP, MTP 3, MTP 2, MTP 1 TDM enravishment Radio Avenue BTS, BSC, MS FDMA, TDMA, CDMA MM, CM, RR, LAPDm, LAPD, BSSAP, SCCP, MTP 3, MTP 2, MTP 1 TDM, Frame Relay enravishment BTS, BSC, MS TDMA, CDMA, EDGE MAC, RLC, GMM/SM/SMS, LLC, SNDCP, BSSGP, NS, FR,RR, BSSAP, SCCP, MTP 3, MTP 2, MTP 1Handsets Opinion solely marginals New expression of marginal Dual jurisprudence TDMA and CDMA Opinion and grounds marginals WAP, no multimedia buttress Databases Grounds Rates HLR, VLR, EIR, AuC Up to 9. 6 Kbps HLR, VLR, EIR, AuC Up to 57. 6 Kbps (HSCSD) Up to 115Kbps (GPRS) Up to 384 Kbps (EDGE) SMS, Internet Restricted, not global Not congenial to 3G Applications Travelling Compatibility Gradual opinion, Weak Notice Benefit (SMS) Restricted, not global Not congenial to 3G Internet, multimedia Global Congenial to 2G, 2G+ and Bluetooth March 2000 7. Trillium 3G Wireweak SolutionsTrillium proposes an large wireweak software separation portfolio for real 2G netoperation and for upcoming GPRS and 3G wireweak methods. In peaceoration to the protocols shown under, Trillium besides proposes Fault-Tolerance/High-Availforce and reserved structure improvements to all method separations. Trillium's separations are shown in Tables 2 and 3 under. Tserviceable 2: Trillium's GPRS Software Solutions (underlined) Contrivance Term BTS (Base Transceiver Station) - Lawful for radio transmission / acceptation in one or further cells after a periodin a benefit area to/from the sensitive handsets. BSC (Base State Controller) - Lawful for curbling the se and the rectitude of the radio productionss. 2G-SGSN (Serving GPRS Node) - Provides opinion and packet grounds benefits and skill of sensitive subscribers. 2G-GGSN (Gateway GPRS Node) - Provides a gate intervisage to manifest Packet Grounds Networks (PDN) and manages the routing of the tunneled sensitive netoperation protocol grounds units (PDUs) opposing the PDN. 2G-CGF (Charging Gate Function) - lawful for billing benefits Required Protocols RLC/MAC NS, BSSGP, Q. 922(core) SNDCP, BSSAP+, LLC, BSSGP, NS, Q. 922 (core), GTP, MAP, TCAP,SCCP, MTP3, MTP2, MTP 1, GMM/SM/SMS GTP, MAP, TCAP, SCCP, MTP 3, MTP 2, MTP 1, GMM/SM, X. 5, LAPB GTP` 2G-MS - The 2G sensitive state (handset) improved to GMM/SM/SMS, SNDCP, RLC/MAC, afford users improved opinion and grounds benefits. LLC 2G-HLR/AuC/EIR –The 2G Home Precipitation Register MAP,TCAP,SCCP,MTP3, MTP 2, MTP 1 Database after a period User Profiles 2G-MSC/VLR – The 2G Sensitive Switching Center and Visitor Precipitation Register Database BSSAP+,SCCP,MTP3, MTP2, MTP 1 March 2000 Tserviceable 3: Trillium's 3G Wireweak Software Solutions (underlined) Contrivance Term Node B - Lawful for radio transmission / acceptation in one or further cells after a periodin a benefit area to/from the sensitive handsets.RNC (Radio Netoperation Controller) - Lawful for curbling the use and the rectitude of the radio productionss. Replaces 2G/2G+ Base Transceiver State (BTS) Required Protocols RLC/MAC, NBAP, AAL2 Signaling,Q. 2130, SSCOP Base State Controller (BSC) PDCP, RLC/MAC, RRC, RANAP, RNSAP, NBAP, AAL2 Signaling, SIGTRAN (SCTP/M3UA), GTP, Q. 2130, SSCOP, Q. 2140, MTP3B, SCCP, CIP RANAP, SCTP/M3UA, GTP, Broadknot SS7 (SCCP, MTP3B, Q. 2140, SSCOP), CIP, GMM/SM/SMS, MAP, TCAP, MTP 2, MTP 1 GTP, MAP, TCAP, SCCP, MTP 3, MTP 2, MTP 1 G-SGSN (Serving GPRS Node) - Provides opinion and packet grounds benefits and skill of sensitive subscribers. 3G-GGSN (Gateway GPRS Node) - Provides a gate intervisage to manifest Packet Grounds Networks (PDN) and manages the routing of the tunneled sensitive netoperation protocol grounds units (PDUs) opposing the PDN. 3G-CGF (Charging Gate Function) - lawful for billing benefits 3G-MS - The 3G sensitive state (handset) improved to afford users improved opinion and grounds benefits. 3G-HLR/AuC/EIR –The 3G Home Precipitation Register Database after a period User Profiles 3G-MSC/VLR – The 3G Sensitive Switching Center and Visitor Precipitation Register Database G SGSN 2G GGSN 2G-CGF GTP' 2G-MS GMM/SM, PDCP, RLC/MAC, RRC 2G-HLR/AuC/EIR 2G-MSC/VLR MAP,TCAP,SCCP,MTP3, MTP 2, MTP 1 BSSAP+,ISUP,SCCP,MTP3, MTP 2, MTP 1, RANAP, SCCP, Q. 2140, SSCOP, AAL2 Signaling March 2000 8. Environing Trillium Trillium Digital Systems is the requisite affordr of notices software separations for the converged netoperation infrastructure. Trillium's fount jurisprudence separations are used in further than 500 projects by perseverance-requisite suppliers of wireless, Internet, indelicateknot and telephony emanations.Trillium's lofty-performance, lofty-availforce software and benefits curtail the space, risk and consume of instrumenting SS7, IP, H. 323, MGCP, ATM, Wireweak and other jurisprudencels-domiciled notices protocols. Trillium actively keep-aparticipates in the clearment of 3rd epoch methods by clearing jurisprudencels-domiciled wireweak notices protocols. It is likely that the primary 3G sensitive marginals succeed be multi-jurisprudence contrivances, which productionss that they succeed buttress a number of 2nd epoch protocol jurisprudencels in aptop to gain large netoperation coverage and to afford 3rd epoch gradual benefits.Trillium has large know-how in all the elder notices protocol jurisprudencels in the cosmos-fellow-creatures and can afford separations for abundant expressions of networks. Trillium designs all its portserviceable software emanations using the Trillium Gradual Portforce Structure (TAPA™ ), a set of architectural and coding jurisprudencels that secure the software is fullly stubborn of the compiler, regularityor, munificent method and structure of the target method.This finds Trillium emanations light, stopent, true, lofty temper, lofty achievement, elastic, and scaleable. This structure besides secures that all Trillium protocols can interoperation seamlessly in the resembling or among unanalogous networks. As mentioned aggravatehead, auspicious instrumentation, preference, and balanceall rejoinder of the 3G wireweak networks depends largely on the force of these new sensitive networks to intervisage and interoperation after a period the real 2G and impart networks ordinaryly deployed cosmos-peoplewide.Trillium proposes a indelicate dispose of protocols for primary- and relieve-epoch sensitive networks, impart networks, and agricultural networks. Trillium's emanations recognize wireweak notices equipment manufacturers to clear "best-in-class" next-epoch sensitive networks, to secure good-fortune of the netoperation operator and benefit affordr, and to secure large rejoinder of the new benefits by end-users. Additional mention is availserviceable at http://www. trillium. com.