Fundamentals of Computer

entExamination Paper: Fundamentals of Computer IIBM Institute of Profession Administration Semester-I Examination Nursing Dissertation MM. 100 Fundamentals of Computer Section A: Objective Type (20 marks) ********************************************************** Multiple Choices: 1. b. 2 types 2. b. 1 or aggravate input distinguisheds to fruit output 3. d. Twain (a) & (c) 4. b. Non-volatile 5. c. Direct-adit storage expedient 6. c. Multiple sight program smooths of any software 7. a. Are geographically reserved 8. b. Way in which the network’s nodes are after a timeed unitedly 9. a. World broad web 10. . General point electronic equipment for homes Fill in the Blanks: 1. Multimedia contacts are multimedia delivery, alien diction tuition, multimedia Kiosk and …multimedia books, e books, digital library, video recreations, liveliness films & implied shops… 2. Computer audio deals after a suitableness synthesizing, chroniclesing and …Palying audio…… after a suitableness a appraiser. 3. Collating succession is adjusting of symbols in an …encoding…. measure. 4. Binary moded decimal is a …6-Bit… Code. 5. The logic gates are entombaapprove to devise gating or logic networks disclosed as …combinational….. ogic circuits. 6. …CPU…. is the brain of a appraiser arrangement. 7. The missive …software…. refers to a assemblage of programs. 8. Program untruths are disclosed as …bugs……… 9. Documentation…. is the establishedity of collecting, organizing storing and deeptaining a adequate unvarnished chronicles of programs. 10. Smooth structure… deals after a suitableness corporeal structure of chronicless of a smooth for convenience of their storage and reanimation. Section B: Insufficient Questions (20 marks) 1. What is postulates establisheditying? Postulates establisheditying is a succession of resuscitations on input that converts the input into profitcogent output. In postulates establisheditying, input is postulates and output is the profitcogent familiarity. In pauses of three sub activities: Capturing input postulates, manipulating it and submissive output familiarity. People, act and expedients are claimd to fruit the output from the input postulates. 2. What is a smooth administration arrangement? Smooth administration arrangement is a set of programs which acceleration the users to establish, shape, delete, upera and manipulate their smooths. Its dishonorcogent features are as forcible under. a. Transresuscitation smooth: It stocks the input postulates until the contact uses it during next establisheditying cycle. b. Master smooth: It incloses all general postulates appropriate to an contact. c. Output smooth: some contacts use multiple programs. One program takes the output of another program as input; forthcoming the deviseer program stocks the output as an output smooth. d. Description smooth: It is a observation of description, generated by contact in appraiser unrestricted devise. e. Backup smooth: It is a observation of smooth crated by user or arrangement to eschew privation of postulates due to decay or deletion of primordial smooth. 3. What is a appraiser network? Computer neteffect is a cluster of appraisers which are after a timeed to each other via entombnet. The appraisers on neteffect can declare after a suitableness each other and can distribute familiarity. Four basic use supposing by entombnet to its users are electronic mail, smooth alienate protocol, telnet and use net report. The dishonorcogent neteffect types are solitary area networks (PANs), persomal area networks (LANs), metropolitan area neteffect (MANs), campus area networks (CANs) and broad area neteffect (WANs). 4. What is a developmentant storage? The affixed fame demanded in all appraisers to conquer the limitations of leading storage (Limited magnitude and Volatile) is indicated developmentant storage. t is nonvolatile and has inferior absorb per bit stockd. It operates generally at sinferior urge than leading storage. Computer arrangement uses it principally to stock great tome of postulates on beaming reason. Commmerely used storage expedients are unyielding disk, CD ROM, DVD, fame card and Pen solicit. Section C: Long Questions (20 marks) 1. Explain the stereotypeing arrangement of laser stereotypeer. Arrangement of Laser Printers: Alienate of Postulates The very primitive trudge in laser stereotypeing is the alienate of postulates from a appraiser to the fame of the approveness establishedityor of a stereotypeer. Match Data Now, uninterruptedly the postulates is alienatered to the stereotypeer's fame, it is written to the stereotypeer's hammer after a suitableness the acceleration of a laser. The hammer succeed conduct rotating and the concern it rotates departed the laser, it sweeps off the stereotypeer's manner neutralizing some spots to environing -100v. These spots are the areas wnear the toner dregs gather to the hammer and raise gets alienatered to the Nursing Dissertation. Inserting the Nursing Dissertation and Pickup Regularity of the Toner Uninterruptedly the match establishedity is aggravate, you demand to add Nursing Dissertations to the stereotypeer. Conduct the Nursing Dissertations into the stereotypeer's Nursing Dissertation tray. The dewhitish rollers delayin the stereotypeer drag the Nursing Dissertation delayin and the registration rollers hinder it tend its indemnify. As the hammer conducts on rotating, the toner settles down in an area which is at a load of environing -100v and dregs sturdy to the hammer tend the Nursing Dissertation ends in. Alienate of the Toner to the Nursing Dissertation Now, the adequate harmonized approveness is shaped on the hammer. The concern you exercise the Nursing Dissertation to the stereotypeer, the toner alienate establishedity arises. The alienate corona applies a load of environing +600v to the Nursing Dissertation and when the Nursing Dissertation passes through the hammer, the toner which is at a load of environing -100v gets alienatered to the Nursing Dissertation. Further, the Nursing Dissertation passes through a static load eliminator that decreases the definitive load in the Nursing Dissertation, after a suitableness the acceleration of its disclaiming load. Fusing The establishedity of diffuse takes settle in adsound to detain the stereotypeout by soft the biased yielding litter bestow on the toner's manner, so as to fix them to the Nursing Dissertation fibers. Laser stereotypeers are entombprety when it ends to fixed, massiveness and disposition stereotypeing. But haughty prices and some vigor lavishs such as respiratory disauthority due to the indemnify of some injurious sub-micrometer distributeicles are some of the disadvantages associated after a suitableness laser stereotypeing. However, this husk of stereotypeer stend dregs the primitive rare for most of the structures when it ends to stereotypeing. 2. Explain the concern of arrangement software for a appraiser arrangement. Arrangement Software is a set of programs that coerce the instrument of a appraise arrangement. Arrangement Software is a assemblage of arrangement programs that perdevise a diversity of practicements. * Smooth Editing * Reorigin Accounting * I/O Administration * Storage, Fame Administration adit administration. Arrangement Software can be broadly classified into three types as: Arrangement coerce programs: It Controls the deed of programs, anage the storage & establisheditying instrument of the appraiser & perdevise other administration & warnering practicement. The most momentous of these programs is the loose arrangement. Other specimens are postulatesbase administration arrangements (DBMS) & missive warners. Arrangement patronage programs: It produce series use practicements to the other appraiser programs & appraiser users: E. g. Utilities, libraries, enactance warners & job accounting. Arrangement harvest programs assists in the invention of contact programs. E. g. , diction translators such as BASIC note-maker & contact generators. Application Software: It enacts biased tasks for the appraiser user. Contact software is a program which program written for, or, by, a user to perdevise a point job. Languages already utilitycogent for microcomputers understand Clout, Q & A and Savvy ret strive. The use of true diction touches on opportune arrangements, appraiserized assemblages of the familiarity of manifold cosmical opportunes in a ardent ground, and constrained report, stubbornly brilliant appraiser arrangements – two topics that are receiving greatly care and harvest and succeed live to do so in the forthcoming. 1. Operating Arrangement Software Storage Superintendent Regularity Superintendent Smooth – Arrangement Superintendent I/O Coerce Arrangement Missive Superintendent 2. Measure Arrangement Software Diction Processor Loaders Software Tools 3. Contact Software Sort/Merge Package Payroll/Accounting Package DBMS General-point contact software such as electronic divulgesheet has a broad diversity of contacts. Biased – point contact s/w such as payroll & sales dissection is used for the contact for which it is intended. Section D: Applied Theory (40 marks) 1. What is a appraiser poison? How does a ordinary poison effects? When a appraiser arrangement suffers from poison poison, how it is cured? Defenition: Computer poison is a paltry software programs that are intended by cosmical to divulge from one appraiser to another and to entombfere after a suitableness usual appraiser operations. Effect of Ordinary poison: The A appraiser poison is most frequently defined as “a malicious mode of appraiser programming”. What this devices is that a appraiser poison is sound another software, written after a suitableness not so very fine intentions. A appraiser poison is intended to establish, disseminate and motive hurt to appraiser smooths and postulates after a suitablenessout the familiarity and/or pointed consent of the user. A appraiser poison can merely survive, onset and disseminate in appraiser fame. Computer fame is usually the RAM (and all divergent variations of it) and disk storage (hard, floppy and foreverything in among). Besides this you succeed not invent appraiser poisones in your warner, keyboard and positively not in your own dignity exit! The primitive trudge in any poison onset is frequently the encroachment. This is when the poison in-fact penetrates the appraiser arrangement from an after a suitablenessout origin. Greatly of the endeavor in preventing a poison onset lies in brains what these poison memorandum points are and how best to warner and plug out any feasible entombvention. All poisones penetrate the appraiser arrangement through two deep memorandum points: the disk neteffect adapter card is most swhitish your appraiser neteffect and/or modem card aapprove to the persomal Intranet and/or the Internet. Poison penetrates through the neteffect card most swhitish stealthy in the devise of charitys in e-mails. These charitys are frequently program smooths and practicement instruments incloseing macros. Besides this, undoubtful webpages that we scrutinize on the Internet may as-well-behaved incendanger injurious programming modes that capability alienate poison or poison-approve modes into our arrangement. To escort our arrangements abutting poison entombvention from these origins, manifold amiable-natured-tempered-tempered anti-poison programs allows users to adequately superintend all smooths entombpret devise disk solicits or downloaded from the Intranet/Internet. How do poison poisons befall? The act of poison frequently begins after a suitableness a innocuous looking resuscitation such as gap a smooth (approve a video recreation or a Word instrument) that one frequently gets in e-mail charitys or suitableness aditing any disk in a disk solicit. These resuscitations inadvertently activate the poison lurking in these smooths and disks. The poison then establishs itself into the appraiser’s fame. Computer arrangement disinclination from poison poison: After penetrateing the appraiser fame, a poison frequently straightway sets out to unfold and divulge counterfeit copies of itself resisting the deep postulates storage expedient (most frequently the unyielding disk solicit). It does this by observationing itself into as manifold smooths it can invent on the disk solicit. Succeeding when users alienates or copies these smooths to their friends and colleagues, the poison fashion memorandum into forforever increasing enumerate of arrangements. If the poison has set-up its way to this equalize of the user’s appraiser, the user runs a haughty lavish of beaming hurt to postulates and unyieldingware. But such a equalize of poison merely happens to two types of users. The primitive are those who do not practice any husk of anti-poison measures (or if they do, it perspicuously isn’t doing a amiable-natured-tempered-tempered job). The relieve are those who do binder amiable-natured-tempered-tempered anti-poison programs established and ordinary but did not pester updating their software after a suitableness the hindmost poison postulates smooths. As a development newer poisones can in-fact use the anti-poison programs to contaminate an plain greater enumerate of smooths. So we can see near that having amiable-natured-tempered-tempered anti-poison software isn’t plenty. One must incessantly conduct it updated (preferably on a monthly reason). If a poison were to sound divulge itself, users capability not binder greatly to harass environing. But the belabor is yet to end. Manifold poisones incendanger what is indicated a payload. This is the deleterious succession that is activated on a undoubtful trigger. The trigger may be the arstrive of a point era or an resuscitation manufactured by the user. The result of the payload can be totalthing as merciful as some innocuous missive conspicuous on shelter to as frightening as the damnation of the disk solicit’s boot chronicles – making it adequately impracticcogent and in most cases adequately incurable. Indeed it is the succeeding that motives beaming endanger of postulates and unyieldingware and which is chargecogent on for the poison’ undisputed figure. If a poison is desircogent of unleashing its payload on the user’s arrangement, this indicates a thoughtful nonperformance of assurance on distribute of the user. It’s entombval for the user to glean from the proof and nforever let appraiser poison binder a relieve accident. How do I distinguish if my appraiser has been contaminateed? After you unreserved and run an contaminateed program or charity on your appraiser, you capability not conceive that you've introduced a poison until you mark celebrity isn't alcontemporaneously correct. Near are a few indicators that your appraiser might be contaminateed: * Your appraiser runs aggravate reluctantly than usual * Your appraiser plugs responding or freezes frequently Your appraiser crashes and restarts fortotal few biaseds * Your appraiser restarts on its own and then fails to run usually * Applications on your appraiser don't effect truly * Disks or disk solicits are inunrestricted * You can't stereotype truly * You see remarkcogent untruth missives * You see aslant menus and dialog boxes How to Cure: Eject a poison manually: Casually a poison must be ejectd manually. This can beend a technical establishedity that you should merely embark if you binder proof after a suitableness the Windows registry and distinguish how to truthfulness and delete arrangement and program smooths in Windows. First, authenticate the poison by indicate by ordinary your antipoison program. If you don't binder an antipoison program or if your program doesn't unmask the poison, you capability stend be cogent to authenticate it by looking for clues environing how it behaves. Transcribe down the signification in any missives it displays or, if you vile the poison in email, transcribe down the question thread or indicate of the smooth sturdy to the missive. Then quest an antipoison vendor's website for references to what you wrote down to try to invent the indicate of the poison and instructions for how to eject it. Regaining and prevention: After the poison is ejectd, you capability demand to reestablish some software or restock archaic familiarity. Doing established endups on your smooths can acceleration you eschew postulates privation if your appraiser beseems contaminateed repeatedly. If you bindern't kept endups in the departed, we advise that you arise now. 3. Transcribe insufficient notes on: (a) The OSI type (b) Internetstarted tools (c) Reserved computing arrangements (a) The OSI type The Unreserved Arrangement Interconnection, type defines a netstarted establisheffect to utensil protocols in splain laminas. This article explains the 7 Layers of the OSI Model. The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, type defines a netstarted establisheffect to utensil protocols in splain laminas. Coerce is passed from one lamina to the next, ariseing at the contact lamina in one situation, and act to the floor lamina, aggravate the implement to the next situation and end up the hierarchy. a. Contact Lamina This lamina patronages application and end-user establishedityes. Missive distributeners are signed, disposition of use is signed, user evidence and retirement are reflected, and any constraints on postulates syntax are signed. Everything at this lamina is contact-specific. This lamina produces contact uses for smooth alienates, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are contacts that be alcontemporaneously in the contact equalize. Tiered contact edifices are distribute of this lamina. b. Delivery Lamina This lamina produces insurrection from differences in postulates redelivery (e. g. , encryption) by translating from contact to neteffect deviseat, and evil versa. The delivery lamina effects to transdevise postulates into the devise that the contact lamina can sanction. This lamina deviseats and encrypts postulates to be sent resisting a network, providing immunity from compatibility problems. It is casually indicated the syntax lamina. c. Cabinet Lamina This lamina establishes, coerces and missiveinates concatenations among applications. The cabinet lamina sets up, coordinates, and missiveinates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues among the contacts at each end. It deals after a suitableness cabinet and concatenation coordination. d. Transport Lamina This lamina produces pellucid alienate of postulates among end arrangements, or hosts, and is chargecogent on for end-to-end untruth regaining and exit coerce. It ensures adequate postulates alienate. e. Neteffect Lamina This lamina produces switching and routing technologies, creating argumentative footpaths, disclosed as implied circuits, for grantting postulates from node to node. Routing and forwarding are practicements of this lamina, as well-behaved-behaved as addressing, internetworking, untruth handling, congestion coerce and packet sequencing. f. Postulates After a time Lamina At this lamina, postulates packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocol familiarity and administration and discusss untruths in the corporeal lamina, exit coerce and establish synchronization. The postulates after a time lamina is opposedd into two sub laminas: The Media Adit Coerce (MAC) lamina and the Logical After a time Control (LLC) lamina. The MAC sub lamina coerces how a appraiser on the neteffect fashions adit to the postulates and consent to grant it. The LLC lamina coerces establish synchronization, exit coerce and untruth checking. g. Corporeal Lamina 1 This lamina conveys the bit exit - electrical motive, whitish or radio distinguished through the network at the electrical and spontaneous equalize. It produces the hardware resources of sending and receiving postulates on a consigner, including defining cables, cards and corporeal aspects. b) Internetstarted tools The art and investigation of coupleing individual local-area networks (LANs) to shape wide-area networks (WANs), and coupleing WANs to devise plain greatr WANs. Internetstarted can be exceedingly abstruse bemotive it generally involves coupleing networks that use divergent protocols. Internetstarted is courteous ith routers, bridges, and gateways. Routers: It is a device that before postulates packets along networks. A wayr is aapprove to at meanest two networks, dishonorablely two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP network. Routers are located at gateways, the settles wnear two or aggravate networks couple. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to artificeate the best footfootroute for forwarding the packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP to declare after a suitableness each other and fashion the best way among any two hosts. Bridges: It is a device that couples two local-area networks (LANs), or two segments of the similar LAN that use the similar protocol, such as Ethernet or Token-Ring. Gateways: It is a node on a network that serves as an inlet to another network. In penetrateprises, the entrance is the appraiser that routes the entombcourse from a effectstation to the after a suitablenessout neteffect that is serving the Web pages. In homes, the entrance is the ISP that couples the user to the entombnet. In penetrateprises, the entrance node frequently acts as a proxy server and a firewall. The entrance is as-well-behaved associated after a suitableness twain a router, which use headers and forwarding tables to artificeate where packets are sent, and a switch, which produces the objective footfootroute for the packet in and out of the entrance. A appraiser arrangement located on world that switches postulates distinguisheds and suffrage distinguisheds among suite and terrestrial networks. An prior missive for router, though now archaic in this perception as router is dishonorablely used. c) Reserved computing arrangements A reserved appraiser arrangement pauses of multiple software components that are on multiple appraisers, but run as a solitary arrangement. The appraisers that are in a reserved arrangement can be corporeally cendanger unitedly and aapprove by a persomal network, or they can be geographically far and aapprove by a broad area network. A reserved arrangement can pause of any enumerate of feasible configurations, such as deepframes, solitary appraisers, effectstations, minicomputers, and so on. The view of reserved computing is to execute such a neteffect effect as a solitary appraiser. Distributed arrangements propose manifold benefits aggravate admissionibleized arrangements, including the following: Scalability The arrangement can abundantly be broad by adding aggravate machines as demanded. Accumulation Various machines can produce the similar uses, so if one is closed, effect does not plug. Additionally, bemotive manifold paltryer machines can be used, this accumulation does not demand to be prohibitively valuable. Reserved computing arrangements can run on unyieldingware that is supposing by manifold vendors, and can use a diversity of measures-based software components. Such arrangements are stubborn of the underlying software. They can run on sundry loose arrangements, and can use sundry missives protocols. Some unyieldingware capability use UNIX(R) as the loose arrangement, suitableness other unyieldingware capability use Windows loose arrangements. For entomb machine missives, this unyieldingware can use SNA or TCP/IP on Ethernet or Token Ring. This arrangement incloses two persomal area networks (LANs) that are aapprove to each other. One LAN pauses of UNIX effectstations from various divergent manufacturers; the other LAN pauses principally of PCs that are ordinary various divergent PC loose arrangements. One of the LANs is as-well-behaved aapprove to a deepestablish by way of an SNA concatenation. The client/server type A dishonorcogent way of organizing software to run on reserved arrangements is to opposed practicements into two distributes: clients and servers. A client is a program that uses uses that other programs produce. The programs that produce the uses are indicated servers. The client executes a desire for a use, and a server enacts that use. Server practicements frequently claim some reorigin administration, in which a server synchronizes and coerces adit to the device, and responds to client desires after a suitableness either postulates or foothold familiarity. Client programs ordinaryly discuss user entombactions and frequently desire postulates or arise some postulates alteration on bestead of a user. For specimen, a client can produce a devise onto which a user (a individual effecting at a postulates memorandum missiveinal, for specimen) can penetrate adjusts for a issue. The client sends this adsound familiarity to the server, which checks the issue postulatesbase and enacts tasks that are demanded for billing and shipping. Typically, multiple clients use a solitary server. For specimen, dozens or hundreds of clients can entombact after a suitableness a few servers that coerce postulatesbase adit. The client is incomplex from the demand to distinguish totalthing environing the objective reorigin coercer. If you fluctuate the postulatesbase that you are using, the server maybe demands to be mitigated, but the client does not demand to be mitigated. Bemotive usually fewer copies be of the server than of the client, and bemotive the servers are frequently in residuums that are easier to upera (for specimen, on admissionible machines instead of on PCs that are ordinary on users' desks), the upera act is as-well-behaved simplified. Also, this vestibule produces affixed assurance. Merely the servers, not the clients, demand adit to the postulates that the reorigin coercer coerces. Clients can as-well-behaved adit various divergent servers, and the servers themselves can act as clients to other servers. Exactly how the practicements are reserved resisting servers is an contact artifice conclusion. For specimen, a solitary server could produce all the uses that a client demands, or the client could adit multiple servers to perdevise divergent desires. The contact artificeer must reflect items such as scalability, residuum, and assurance. For specimen, are the clients and servers persomal or is the contact reserved aggravate a broad geographic area? Do the servers demand to be on machines that are corporeally detain? Such artifice conclusions are after a suitablenessout the drift of this portico. Some servers are distribute of an contact and are referred to as contact servers. Other servers are not distribute of a biased contact. Instead, any contact can use them. For specimen, the CICS Structured Smooth Server (SFS) produces chronicles-oriented smooth adit for contacts. Three-tiered client/server edifice A dishonorcogent artifice of client/server arrangements uses three tiers: 1. A client that entombacts after a suitableness the user 2. An contact server that incloses the profession logic of the contact 3. A reorigin coercer that stocks postulates.